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Cheap guns you should get [Jul. 5th, 2008|08:16 pm]
The Militant Corner

redstar08
[Tags|]
[Current Location |GEORGIA!!!]
[Current Mood |curiouscurious]
[Current Music |Y.M.C.A]

 

Kalashnikov AK-47 and AKM assault rifles (USSR)


Kalashnikov AK (the original AK-47 with combination stamped / milled receiver)


Modified AK (1955 manufacture), with machined receiver. Note the distinctive machined cuts above and forward of the magazine well.


Automat Kalashnikova Modernized - AKM assault rifle, with the multipurpose bayonet-knife. Note that the stamped receiver has small indents above the magazine instead of the machined cuts on the earlier AK models.


AKMS - AKM with folding buttstock


AKM with GP-25 40mm underbarrel grenade launcher


 
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Field Weapons [Jun. 16th, 2008|06:47 pm]
The Militant Corner

redstar08
[Tags|]
[Current Mood |creativecreative]

 
As a soldier you know the importance of proper care and use of your weapons, tools, and equipment. This is especially true of your knife. You must always keep it sharp and ready to use. A knife is your most valuable tool in a survival situation. Imagine being in a survival situation without any weapons, tools, or equipment except your knife. It could happen! You might even be without a knife. You would probably feel helpless, but with the proper knowledge and skills, you can easily improvise needed items.
In survival situations, you may have to fashion any number and type of field-expedient tools and equipment to survive. Examples of tools and equipment that could make your life much easier are ropes, rucksacks, clothes, nets, and so on.
Weapons serve a dual purpose. You use them to obtain and prepare food and to provide self-defense. A weapon can also give you a feeling of security and provide you with the ability to hunt on the move.

CLUBS

You hold clubs, you do not throw them. As a field-expedient weapon, the club does not protect you from enemy soldiers. It can, however, extend your area of defense beyond your fingertips. It also serves to increase the force of a blow without injuring yourself. There are three basic types of clubs. They are the simple, weighted, and sling club.

Simple Club

A simple club is a staff or branch. It must be short enough for you to swing easily, but long enough and strong enough for you to damage whatever you hit. Its diameter should fit comfortably in your palm, but it should not be so thin as to allow the club to break easily upon impact. A straight-grained hardwood is best if you can find it.

Weighted Club

A weighted club is any simple club with a weight on one end. The weight may be a natural weight, such as a knot on the wood, or something added, such as a stone lashed to the club.

To make a weighted club, first find a stone that has a shape that will allow you to lash it securely to the club. A stone with a slight hourglass shape works well. If you cannot find a suitably shaped stone, you must fashion a groove or channel into the stone by a technique known as pecking. By repeatedly rapping the club stone with a smaller hard stone, you can get the desired shape.

Next, find a piece of wood that is the right length for you. A straight-grained hardwood is best. The length of the wood should feel comfortable in relation to the weight of the stone. Finally, lash the stone to the handle.

There are three techniques for lashing the stone to the handle: split handle, forked branch, and wrapped handle. The technique you use will depend on the type of handle you choose. See Figure 12-1.

Sling Club

A sling club is another type of weighted club. A weight hangs 8 to 10 centimeters from the handle by a strong, flexible lashing (Figure 12-2). This type of club both extends the user's reach and multiplies the force of the blow.

EDGED WEAPONS

Knives, spear blades, and arrow points fall under the category of edged weapons. The following paragraphs will discuss the making of such weapons.

Knives

A knife has three basic functions. It can puncture, slash or chop, and cut. A knife is also an invaluable tool used to construct other survival items. You may find yourself without a knife or you may need another type knife or a spear. To improvise you can use stone, bone, wood, or metal to make a knife or spear blade.

Stone

To make a stone knife, you will need a sharp-edged piece of stone, a chipping tool, and a flaking tool. A chipping tool is a light, blunt-edged tool used to break off small pieces of stone. A flaking tool is a pointed tool used to break off thin, flattened pieces of stone. You can make a chipping tool from wood, bone, or metal, and a flaking tool from bone, antler tines, or soft iron (Figure 12-3).

Start making the knife by roughing out the desired shape on your sharp piece of stone, using the chipping tool. Try to make the knife fairly thin. Then, using the flaking tool, press it against the edges. This action will cause flakes to come off the opposite side of the edge, leaving a razor sharp edge. Use the flaking tool along the entire length of the edge you need to sharpen. Eventually, you will have a very sharp cutting edge that you can use as a knife.

Lash the blade to some type of hilt (Figure 12-3).

Note: Stone will make an excellent puncturing tool and a good chopping tool but will not hold a fine edge. Some stones such as chert or flint can have very fine edges.

Bone

You can also use bone as an effective field-expedient edged weapon. First, you will need to select a suitable bone. The larger bones, such as the leg bone of a deer or another medium-sized animal, are best. Lay the bone upon another hard object. Shatter the bone by hitting it with a heavy object, such as a rock. From the pieces, select a suitable pointed splinter. You can further shape and sharpen this splinter by rubbing it on a rough-surfaced rock. If the piece is too small to handle, you can still use it by adding a handle to it. Select a suitable piece of hardwood for a handle and lash the bone splinter securely to it.

Note: Use the bone knife only to puncture. It will not hold an edge and it may flake or break if used differently.

Wood

You can make field-expedient edged weapons from wood. Use these only to puncture. Bamboo is the only wood that will hold a suitable edge. To make a knife using wood, first select a straight-grained piece of hardwood that is about 30 centimeters long and 2.5 centimeters in diameter. Fashion the blade about 15 centimeters long. Shave it down to a point. Use only the straight-grained portions of the wood. Do not use the core or pith, as it would make a weak point.

Harden the point by a process known as fire hardening. If a fire is possible, dry the blade portion over the fire slowly until lightly charred. The drier the wood, the harder the point. After lightly charring the blade portion, sharpen it on a coarse stone. If using bamboo and after fashioning the blade, remove any other wood to make the blade thinner from the inside portion of the bamboo. Removal is done this way because bamboo's hardest part is its outer layer. Keep as much of this layer as possible to ensure the hardest blade possible. When charring bamboo over a fire, char only the inside wood; do not char the outside.

Metal

Metal is the best material to make field-expedient edged weapons. Metal, when properly designed, can fulfill a knife's three uses--puncture, slice or chop, and cut. First, select a suitable piece of metal, one that most resembles the desired end product. Depending on the size and original shape, you can obtain a point and cutting edge by rubbing the metal on a rough-surfaced stone. If the metal is soft enough, you can hammer out one edge while the metal is cold. Use a suitable flat, hard surface as an anvil and a smaller, harder object of stone or metal as a hammer to hammer out the edge. Make a knife handle from wood, bone, or other material that will protect your hand.

Other Materials

You can use other materials to produce edged weapons. Glass is a good alternative to an edged weapon or tool, if no other material is available. Obtain a suitable piece in the same manner as described for bone. Glass has a natural edge but is less durable for heavy work. You can also sharpen plastic--if it is thick enough or hard enough--into a durable point for puncturing.

Spear Blades

To make spears, use the same procedures to make the blade that you used to make a knife blade. Then select a shaft (a straight sapling) 1.2 to 1.5 meters long. The length should allow you to handle the spear easily and effectively. Attach the spear blade to the shaft using lashing. The preferred method is to split the handle, insert the blade, then wrap or lash it tightly. You can use other materials without adding a blade. Select a 1.2-to 1.5-meter long straight hardwood shaft and shave one end to a point. If possible, fire harden the point. Bamboo also makes an excellent spear. Select a piece 1.2 to 1.5 meters long. Starting 8 to 10 centimeters back from the end used as the point, shave down the end at a 45-degree angle (Figure 12-4). Remember, to sharpen the edges, shave only the inner portion.

Arrow Points

To make an arrow point, use the same procedures for making a stone knife blade. Chert, flint, and shell-type stones are best for arrow points. You can fashion bone like stone--by flaking. You can make an efficient arrow point using broken glass.

OTHER EXPEDIENT WEAPONS

You can make other field-expedient weapons such as the throwing stick, archery equipment, and the bola.

Throwing Stick

The throwing stick, commonly known as the rabbit stick, is very effective against small game (squirrels, chipmunks, and rabbits). The rabbit stick itself is a blunt stick, naturally curved at about a 45-degree angle. Select a stick with the desired angle from heavy hardwood such as oak. Shave off two opposite sides so that the stick is flat like a boomerang (Figure 12-5). You must practice the throwing technique for accuracy and speed. First, align the target by extending the nonthrowing arm in line with the mid to lower section of the target. Slowly and repeatedly raise the throwing arm up and back until the throwing stick crosses the back at about a 45-degree angle or is in line with the nonthrowing hip. Bring the throwing arm forward until it is just slightly above and parallel to the nonthrowing arm. This will be the throwing stick's release point. Practice slowly and repeatedly to attain accuracy.

Archery Equipment

You can make a bow and arrow (Figure 12-6) from materials available in your survival area. To make a bow, use the procedure described under Killing Devices in Chapter 8.

While it may be relatively simple to make a bow and arrow, it is not easy to use one. You must practice using it a long time to be reasonably sure that you will hit your target. Also, a field-expedient bow will not last very long before you have to make a new one. For the time and effort involved, you may well decide to use another type of field-expedient weapon.

Bola

The bola is another field-expedient weapon that is easy to make (Figure 12-7). It is especially effective for capturing running game or low-flying fowl in a flock. To use the bola, hold it by the center knot and twirl it above your head. Release the knot so that the bola flies toward your target. When you release the bola, the weighted cords will separate. These cords will wrap around and immobilize the fowl or animal that you hit.

LASHING AND CORDAGE

Many materials are strong enough for use as lashing and cordage. A number of natural and man-made materials are available in a survival situation. For example, you can make a cotton web belt much more useful by unraveling it. You can then use the string for other purposes (fishing line, thread for sewing, and lashing).

Natural Cordage Selection

Before making cordage, there are a few simple tests you can do to determine you material's suitability. First, pull on a length of the material to test for strength. Next, twist it between your fingers and roll the fibers together. If it withstands this handling and does not snap apart, tie an overhand knot with the fibers and gently tighten. If the knot does not break, the material is usable. Figure 12-8 shows various methods of making cordage.

Lashing Material

The best natural material for lashing small objects is sinew. You can make sinew from the tendons of large game, such as deer. Remove the tendons from the game and dry them completely. Smash the dried tendons so that they separate into fibers. Moisten the fibers and twist them into a continuous strand. If you need stronger lashing material, you can braid the strands. When you use sinew for small lashings, you do not need knots as the moistened sinew is sticky and it hardens when dry.

You can shred and braid plant fibers from the inner bark of some trees to make cord. You can use the linden, elm, hickory, white oak, mulberry, chestnut, and red and white cedar trees. After you make the cord, test it to be sure it is strong enough for your purpose. You can make these materials stronger by braiding several strands together.

You can use rawhide for larger lashing jobs. Make rawhide from the skins of medium or large game. After skinning the animal, remove any excess fat and any pieces of meat from the skin. Dry the skin completely. You do not need to stretch it as long as there are no folds to trap moisture. You do not have to remove the hair from the skin. Cut the skin while it is dry. Make cuts about 6 millimeters wide. Start from the center of the hide and make one continuous circular cut, working clockwise to the hide's outer edge. Soak the rawhide for 2 to 4 hours or until it is soft. Use it wet, stretching it as much as possible while applying it. It will be strong and durable when it dries.

RUCKSACK CONSTRUCTION

The materials for constructing a rucksack or pack are almost limitless. You can use wood, bamboo, rope, plant fiber, clothing, animal skins, canvas, and many other materials to make a pack.

There are several construction techniques for rucksacks. Many are very elaborate, but those that are simple and easy are often the most readily made in a survival situation.

Horseshoe Pack

This pack is simple to make and use and relatively comfortable to carry over one shoulder. Lay available square-shaped material, such as poncho, blanket, or canvas, flat on the ground. Lay items on one edge of the material. Pad the hard items. Roll the material (with the items) toward the opposite edge and tie both ends securely. Add extra ties along the length of the bundle. You can drape the pack over one shoulder with a line connecting the two ends (Figure 12-9).

Square Pack

This pack is easy to construct if rope or cordage is available. Otherwise, you must first make cordage. To make this pack, construct a square frame from bamboo, limbs, or sticks. Size will vary for each person and the amount of equipment carried (Figure 12-10).

CLOTHING AND INSULATION

You can use many materials for clothing and insulation. Both man-made materials, such as parachutes, and natural materials, such as skins and plant materials, are available and offer significant protection.

Parachute Assembly

Consider the entire parachute assembly as a resource. Use every piece of material and hardware, to include the canopy, suspension lines, connector snaps, and parachute harness. Before disassembling the parachute, consider all of your survival requirements and plan to use different portions of the parachute accordingly. For example, consider shelter requirements, need for a rucksack, and so on, in addition to clothing or insulation needs.

Animal Skins

The selection of animal skins in a survival situation will most often be limited to what you manage to trap or hunt. However, if there is an abundance of wildlife, select the hides of larger animals with heavier coats and large fat content. Do not use the skins of infected or diseased animals if at all possible. Since they live in the wild, animals are carriers of pests such as ticks, lice, and fleas. Because of these pests, use water to thoroughly clean any skin obtained from any animal. If water is not available, at least shake out the skin thoroughly. As with rawhide, lay out the skin, and remove all fat and meat. Dry the skin completely. Use the hind quarter joint areas to make shoes and mittens or socks. Wear the hide with the fur to the inside for its insulating factor.

Plant Fibers

Several plants are sources of insulation from cold. Cattail is a marshland plant found along lakes, ponds, and the backwaters of rivers. The fuzz on the tops of the stalks forms dead air spaces and makes a good down-like insulation when placed between two pieces of material. Milkweed has pollenlike seeds that act as good insulation. The husk fibers from coconuts are very good for weaving ropes and, when dried, make excellent tinder and insulation.

COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS

Many materials may be used to make equipment for the cooking, eating, and storing of food.

Bowls

Use wood, bone, horn, bark, or other similar material to make bowls. To make wooden bowls, use a hollowed out piece of wood that will hold your food and enough water to cook it in. Hang the wooden container over the fire and add hot rocks to the water and food. Remove the rocks as they cool and add more hot rocks until your food is cooked.

CAUTION

Do not use rocks with air pockets, such as limestone and sandstone. They may explode while heating in the fire.

 

You can also use this method with containers made of bark or leaves. However, these containers will burn above the waterline unless you keep them moist or keep the fire low.

A section of bamboo works very well, if you cut out a section between two sealed joints (Figure 12-11).

CAUTION

A sealed section of bamboo will explode if heated because of trapped air and water in the section.

 

Forks, Knives, and Spoons

Carve forks, knives, and spoons from nonresinous woods so that you do not get a wood resin aftertaste or do not taint the food. Nonresinous woods include oak, birch, and other hardwood trees.

Note: Do not use those trees that secrete a syrup or resinlike liquid on the bark or when cut.

Pots

You can make pots from turtle shells or wood. As described with bowls, using hot rocks in a hollowed out piece of wood is very effective. Bamboo is the best wood for making cooking containers.

To use turtle shells, first thoroughly boil the upper portion of the shell. Then use it to heat food and water over a flame (Figure 12-11).

Water Bottles

Make water bottles from the stomachs of larger animals. Thoroughly flush the stomach out with water, then tie off the bottom. Leave the top open, with some means of fastening it closed.




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Assault Weapons For sale [Jun. 13th, 2008|12:12 pm]
The Militant Corner

redstar08
[Tags|]
[Current Mood |crazycrazy]

 If any of you want to buy assault rifles go to this link. http://www.gunnersden.com/ 
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Fighting in Urban Terain [Jun. 11th, 2008|03:45 pm]
The Militant Corner

redstar08
[Tags|]
[Current Mood |sleepyAK-47]

Section I. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Urban operations (UO) are not new to the US Army. Throughout its history the Army has fought an enemy on urban terrain. What is new is that urban areas and urban populations have grown significantly during the late twentieth century and have begun to exert a much greater influence on military operations. The worldwide shift from a rural to an urban society and the requirement to transition from combat to stability and support operations and vice-versa have affected the US Army's doctrine. The brigade will be the primary headquarters around which units will be task-organized to perform UO. Companies, platoons, and squads will seldom conduct UO independently, but will most probably conduct assigned missions as part of a battalion task force urban operation. This section provides the necessary background information that facilitates an understanding of how higher level commanders plan and conduct UO.

1-1. DEFINITIONS

Terms specific to UO are defined herein.

a. Urban Operations. UO are operations planned and conducted in an area of operations (AO) that includes one or more urban areas. An urban area consists of a topographical complex where man-made construction or high population density is the dominant feature. UO usually occur when—

  • The assigned objective lays within an urban area and cannot be bypassed.

  • The urban area is key (or decisive) in setting and or shaping the conditions for current or future operations.

  • An urban area is between two natural obstacles and cannot be bypassed.

  • The urban area is in the path of a general advance and cannot be surrounded or bypassed.

  • Political or humanitarian concerns require the control of an urban area or necessitate operations within it.

  • Defending from urban areas supports a more effective overall defense or cannot be avoided.

  • Occupation, seizure, and control of the urban area will deny the threat control of the urban area and the ability to impose its influence on both friendly military forces and the local civilian population. Therefore, friendly forces can retain the initiative and dictate the conditions for future operations.

b. METT-TC. The tactics, techniques and procedures (TTP) the commander selects for each mission, whether in open or urban terrain, are always dependent upon the factors of mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available. Traditionally, the acronym "METT-T" has been used to help leaders remember this set of factors as they plan a mission. An effect of the increasing importance of urban areas is the addition of civil considerations (METT-TC).

c. Urban Combat. These offensive and defensive operations are the part of UO that include a high density of Infantry-specific tasks. Urban combat operations are conducted to defeat an enemy on urban terrain who may be intermingled with noncombatants. Because of this intermingling, and the necessity to limit collateral damage, the rules of engagement (ROE) and the restrictions placed on the use of combat power may be more restrictive than under other combat conditions.

d. Categories of Urban Areas. An urban area is a concentration of structures, facilities, and people that form the economic and cultural focus for the surrounding area. Operations are affected by all five categories of urban areas. Cities, metropolises, and megalopolises with associated urban sprawl cover hundreds of square kilometers. Brigades and below normally operate in these urban areas as part of a larger force. Extensive combat in these urban areas involves units of division level and above.

  • Villages (population of 3,000 inhabitants or less). The brigade's area of operations (AO) may contain many villages. Battalions and companies bypass, move through, defend from, and attack objectives within villages as a normal part of brigade operations.

  • Towns (population of over 3,000 to 100,000 inhabitants and not part of a major urban complex). Operations in such areas normally involve brigades or divisions. Brigades may bypass, move through, defend in, or attack enemy forces in towns as part of division operations.

  • City (population over 100,000 to 1 million inhabitants).

    e. Conditions of Urban Operations. Due to political and societal changes that have taken place in the late twentieth century, advances in technology, and the Army's growing role in maintaining regional stability, UO is conducted across the full spectrum of offense, defense, stability, and support. The full spectrum of UO will affect how units must plan and execute their assigned missions. The enemy's actions significantly affect the conditions of UO, which may transition from one condition to another rapidly. Units may be conducting operations under different conditions at two locations at the same time. The following definitions of the three general conditions of UO provide clarity, focus, and a mental framework for commanders and leaders conducting tactical planning for UO.

    (1) Urban Operations Under Surgical Conditions. This condition is the least destructive and most tightly focused of all the conditions of UO. Operations conducted under surgical conditions include special-purpose raids, small precision strikes, or small-scale personnel seizures or arrests, focused psychological or civil affairs operations, or recovery operations. They may closely resemble US police operations by special weapons and tactics (SWAT) teams. They may even involve cooperation between US forces and host nation police. Though conventional units may not be directly involved in the actual operation, they may support it by isolating the area or providing security or crowd control.

    (2) Urban Operations Under Precision Conditions. Under precision conditions, either the threat is thoroughly mixed with noncombatants or political considerations require the use of combat power to be significantly more restrictive than UO under high-intensity conditions. Infantry units must routinely expect to operate under precision conditions, especially during stability and support operations.

    (a) UO under precision conditions normally involve combat action, usually involving close combat. Some of this combat can be quite violent for short periods. It is marked, however, by the conscious acceptance by US forces of the need to focus and sometimes restrain the combat power used. The commander may bring overwhelming force to bear, but only on specific portions of the urban area occupied by the threat. He may choose different TTP in order to remain within the bounds of the more restrictive ROE. Tighter ROE demands strict accountability of individual and unit actions.

    (b) When preparing for UO under precision conditions, commanders and leaders must realize that not only may the ROE change, but the TTP may change also. These changes require that soldiers be given time to train for the specific operation. For example, when clearing a room, units may modify the procedure of first throwing a grenade (fragmentation, concussion, stun) into the room before entering. This procedure may be done to lessen the possible casualties among noncombatants interspersed with the enemy. (See Chapter 3 for more information.)

    (3) Urban Operations Under High-Intensity Conditions. These conditions include combat actions against a determined enemy occupying prepared positions or conducting planned attacks. UO under high-intensity conditions require the coordinated application of the full combat power of the joint combined arms team. Infantry units must be prepared at all times to conduct violent combat under conditions of high-intensity UO.

    (a) An Infantry unit's mission is normally to seize, clear, or defend urban terrain, engaging and defeating the enemy by using whatever force is necessary. Although the changing world situation may have made high-intensity UO less likely, it represents the high end of the combat spectrum, and units must be trained for it.

    (b) Urban combat under high-intensity conditions is the most stressful of all operations in urban areas and can be casualty-intensive for both sides. Even though the fully integrated firepower of the joint combined arms team is being used, commanders must still prevent unnecessary collateral damage and casualties among noncombatants.

    f. Stability Operations and Support Operations. The Army has further categorized military operations other than war (MOOTW) as stability and support operations. Units conduct these operations, which are normally short of actual combat, to support national policy. Recent examples include famine relief operations in Mogadishu, Somalia; evacuation of noncombatants in Monrovia, Liberia; and peace enforcement in Bosnia.

    (a) During a stability or support operation, units perform many activities not necessarily contained in their mission-essential task list (METL). Essentially, the unit accomplishes these activities through execution of tactical missions, such as security patrols, establishing roadblocks and checkpoints, base defense, and so forth.

    (b) While stability and support operations can occur anywhere, they will most likely occur in an urban environment. These operations can resemble UO under precision conditions and can easily transition into combat operations. (Additional TTP and lesson plans are contained in Chapter 14 of TC 7-98-1, Stability and Support Training Support Package.)

    g. Confusion and Crossover Between Conditions. As in Mogadishu, many types of operations may occur at the same time and certain types of operations can easily be transformed into others by enemy actions. The specific type of conditions may not have much meaning to the individual soldier, but the ROE must be understood and adhered to by all.

     

  • Metropolis (population over 1 million to 10 million inhabitants).

  • Megalopolis (population over 10 million inhabitants).

1-2. FULL SPECTRUM OPERATIONS/URBAN OPERATIONS CONCEPT

The UO are conducted within the operational framework of decisive, shaping, and sustaining operations (FM 3-0[FM 100-5]). Army units will conduct offensive, defensive, stability, and support (ODSS) operations within the operational framework shown in Figure 1-1. These operations comprise the spectrum of UO that a brigade must be prepared to conduct (Figure 1-2). which depicts the potential simultaneity of UO. Brigades must be prepared to transition from one type of ODSS operation to another. How brigades prepare for and execute ODSS operations will be determined by the factors of METT-TC. (Within mission considerations, the ROE will have significant importance.)

Figure 1-2. UO spectrum of operations/operational concept.

Figure 1-2. UO spectrum of operations/operational concept.

1-3. TACTICAL CHALLENGES

Companies, platoons and squads do not normally operate independently while conducting UO. The battalions to which they are assigned will face a number of challenges during the planning and execution of UO. The most likely challenges that units will face are discussed below.

a. Contiguous and Noncontiguous Areas of Operations. Brigades and battalions must be prepared to conduct ODSS operations in both contiguous and noncontiguous areas of operations (AO). They may be required to command and control subordinate units and elements over extended distances, which may include deploying subordinate battalions and companies individually in support of operations outside the brigade's immediate AO.

NOTE: Under the IBCT concept companies may operate independently.

(1) Contiguous operations are conducted in an AO that facilitates mutual support of combat, combat support (CS), and combat service support (CSS) elements. They have traditional linear features including identifiable, contiguous frontages and shared boundaries between forces. Contiguous operations are characterized by relatively close distances between subordinate units and elements.

(2) In noncontiguous operations, subordinate units may operate in isolated pockets, connected only through the integrating effects of an effective concept of operations. Noncontiguous operations place a premium on initiative, effective information operations, decentralized security operations, and innovative logistics measures. They make mutual support of combat, CS, and CSS elements complicated, or hinder it by extended distances between subordinate units and elements.

b. Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Threats. In addition to being required to face symmetrical threats, the brigade must be prepared to face threats of an asymmetrical nature.

(1) Symmetrical threats are generally "linear" in nature and include those threats that specifically confront the brigade's combat power and capabilities. Examples of symmetrical threats include conventional enemy forces conducting offensive or defensive operations against friendly forces.

(2) Asymmetrical threats are those that are specifically designed to avoid confrontation with the brigade's combat power and capabilities. These threats may use the civilian population and infrastructure to shield their capabilities from fires. Asymmetric threats may also attack the brigade and civilian population with weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Asymmetrical threats are most likely to be based in urban areas to take advantage of the density of civilian population and infrastructure. Examples of asymmetrical threats include terrorist attacks; EW, to include computer-based systems; criminal activity; guerilla warfare; and environmental attacks.

c. Minimization of Collateral Damage and Noncombatant Casualties. A condition that commanders and leaders will be required to confront during urban operations will be minimizing collateral damage and noncombatant casualties. This will have to be balanced with mission accomplishment and the requirement to provide force protection. Commanders must be aware of the ROE and be prepared to request modifications when the tactical situation requires them. Changes in ROE must be rapidly disseminated throughout the brigade. Commanders and leaders must ensure that changes to the ROE are clearly understood by all soldiers within the brigade.

d. Quick Transition from Stability or Support Operations to Combat Operations and Back. Commanders and leaders must ensure that contingencies are planned to transition quickly from stability and support to combat operations and vice-versa. For example, it may be tactically wise for commanders to plan a defensive contingency with on-order offensive missions for certain stability and support operations that may deteriorate. An escalation to combat is a clear indicator that the stability or support operation failed. Units must always retain the ability to conduct offensive and defensive operations. Preserving the ability to transition allows units to maintain initiative while providing force protection. Subordinate commanders and leaders must be fully trained to recognize activities that would initiate this transition.

(1) Balanced Mindset. A balance must be achieved between the mindset of peace operations and the mindset of war fighting. Soldiers cannot become too complacent in their warrior spirit, but also must not be too eager to rely on the use of force to resolve conflict. This balance is the essence of stability operations and the fundamental aspect that will enable the unit to perform its mission successfully and avoid an escalation to combat. Proactive leaders that are communicating and enforcing the ROE are instrumental to achieving this mindset.

(2) Combat Skills Training. If the stability or support operation extends over prolonged periods of time, training should be planned that focuses on the individual and collective combat tasks that would be performed during transition to offensive and or defensive missions.

1-4. IMPORTANCE OF URBAN AREAS

Urban areas are the centers of finance, politics, transportation, communication, industry, society, and culture. Therefore, they have often been scenes of important military operations, both combat and noncombat. Today, more than ever before, UO will be conducted by joint forces (Table 1-1).

a. All UO do not involve combat. The US military has conducted several joint operations that have not required significant amounts of actual combat. Since the end of the war in Vietnam, the US has averaged about one major joint urban operation every other year. Some of these have been violent, such as in Panama and Mogadishu. Others have been very tense but involved little actual fighting, such as the stability operations conducted in Port au Prince, Haiti and Brcko, Bosnia. Many have been domestic support operations conducted in the US, such as the work done in Florida after hurricane Andrew or during the floods in North Dakota.

CITY

YEAR

CITY

YEAR

RIGA

1917

*SEOUL

1950

MADRID

1936

BUDAPEST

1956

WARSAW

1939

*BEIRUT

1958

ROTTERDAM

1940

*SANTO DOMINGO

1965

MOSCOW

1942

*SAIGON

1968

STALINGRAD

1942

*KONTUM

1968

LENINGRAD

1942

*HUE

1968

WARSAW

1943

BELFAST

1972

*PALERMO

1944

MONTEVIDEO

1972

*BREST

1944

QUANGTRI CITY

1972

*AACHEN

1944

SUEZ CITY

1973

ARNHEM

1945

XUAN LOC

1975

ORTONA

1944

SAIGON

1975

*CHERBOURG

1944

BEIRUT

1975

BRESLAU

1945

MANAGUA

1978

*WEISSENFELS

1945

ZAHLE

1981

BERLIN

1945

TYRE

1982

*MANILA

1945

*BEIRUT

1983

JERUSALEM

1967

NICOSIA

1958

*SAN MANUEL

1945

SIDON

1982

ALGIERS

1954

*COLON

1989

CARACAS

1958

*MOGADISHU

1993

*PANAMA CITY

1989

*KUWAIT CITY

1991

*GRENADA

1983

*MONROVIA

1994

*PORT AU PRINCE

1996

*SARAJEVO

1996

 

 

*BRCKO

1997

*Direct US troop involvement.

Table 1-1. Cities contested during twentieth century conflicts.

b. Operations in urban areas are conducted to capitalize on the strategic and tactical advantages of the city, and to deny those advantages to the enemy. Often, the side that controls a city has a psychological or political advantage, which can be enough to significantly affect the outcome of larger conflicts.

c. Even during normally less violent stability operations, such as peacekeeping, combat can occur in cities. In developing nations, control of only a few cities is often the key to control of national resources. The US city riots of the 1960's and the guerrilla and terrorist operations in Santo Domingo, Caracas, Belfast, Managua, Mogadishu, and Beirut indicate the many situations that can occur as a result of UO.

d. Urban areas also affect military operations because of the way they alter the terrain. In the last 40 years, cities have expanded, losing their well-defined boundaries as they extended into the countryside. New road systems have opened areas to make them passable. Highways, canals, and railroads have been built to connect population centers. Industries have grown along those connectors, creating strip areas. Rural areas, although retaining much of their farm-like character, are connected to the towns by a network of secondary roads.

e. These trends have occurred in most parts of the world, but they are the most dramatic in Western Europe. European cities tend to grow together to form one vast urban area. Entire regions assume an unbroken urban character, as is the case in the Ruhr and Rhein Main complex. Such growth patterns block and dominate the historic armor avenues of approach, or decrease the amount of open maneuver area available to an attacker. It is estimated that a typical brigade sector in a European environment includes 25 small towns, most of which would lie in the more open avenues of approach (Figure 1-3). Increased urbanization also has had an effect on Africa and Latin America. Populations have dramatically increased in existing cities and urban sprawl has led to the increased number of slums and shantytowns within those urban areas. In many cases, this urbanization has occurred close to the seacoast, since the interior of many third world nations is undeveloped or uninhabitable.

Figure 1-3. Urban areas blocking maneuver areas.

Figure 1-3. Urban areas blocking maneuver areas.

f. Extensive urbanization provides conditions that a threat force can exploit. Used with mobile forces on the adjacent terrain, conventional threat forces with antitank capabilities defending from urban areas can dominate avenues of approach, greatly improving the overall strength of the defense. Asymmetrical threats can use urban areas to offset US technological and firepower advantages.

g. Forces operating in such areas may have elements in open terrain, villages, towns, or small and large cities. Each of these areas calls for different tactics, task organization, fire support, and CSS.

1-5. FUNDAMENTALS OF URBAN OPERATIONS

The fundamentals described in this paragraph apply to UO regardless of the mission or geographical location. Some fundamentals may also apply to operations not conducted in an urban environment, but are particularly relevant in an environment dominated by manmade structures and a dense noncombatant population. Brigade and battalion commanders and staffs should use these fundamentals when planning UO. and Aggressive Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance

a. Perform Focused Information Operations. Information superiority efforts aimed at influencing non-Army sources of information are critical in UO. Because of the density of noncombatants and information sources, the media, the public, allies, coalition partners, neutral nations, and strategic leadership will likely scrutinize how units participate in UO. The proliferation of cell phones, Internet capability, and media outlets ensure close observation of unit activities. With information sources rapidly expanding, public information of Army operations will be available faster than the internal military information system (INFOSYS) can process it. Units can aggressively integrate information operations into every facet and at all levels of the operation to prevent negative impacts. Under media scrutiny, the actions of a single soldier may have significant strategic implications. The goal of information operations is to ensure that the information available to all interested parties, the public, the media, and other agencies, is accurate and placed in the proper context of the Army's mission. While many information operations will be planned at levels above the brigade, tactical units conducting UO may often be involved in the execution of information operations such as military deception, operations security (OPSEC), physical security, and psychological operations. Brigades and battalions must conduct aggressive intelligence, security, and reconnaissance operations that will allow them to properly apply the elements of assess, shape, dominate, and transition to specific UO.

b. Conduct Close Combat. Close combat is required in offensive and defensive UO. The capability must be present and visible in stability UO and may be required, by exception, in support UO. Close combat in any UO is resource intensive, requires properly trained and equipped forces, has the potential for high casualties, and can achieve decisive results when properly conducted. Units must always be prepared to conduct close combat as part of UO (Figure 1-4).

Figure 1-4. Soldiers conducting close combat in an urban area.

Figure 1-4. Soldiers conducting close combat in an urban area.

c. Avoid the Attrition Approach. Previous doctrine was inclined towards a systematic linear approach to urban combat. This approach placed an emphasis on standoff weapons and firepower. It can result in significant collateral damage, a lengthy operation, and be inconsistent with the political situation and strategic objectives. Enemy forces that defend urban areas often want units to adopt this approach because of the likely costs in resources. Commanders should only consider this tactical approach to urban combat only when the factors of METT-TC warrant its use.

d. Control the Essential. Many modern urban areas are too large to be completely occupied or even effectively controlled. Therefore, units must focus their efforts on controlling only the essentials to mission accomplishment. At a minimum, this requires control of key terrain (Figure 1-5). The definition of key terrain remains standard: terrain whose possession or control provides a marked advantage to one side or another. In the urban environment, functional, political, or social significance may be what makes terrain key. For example, a power station or a building may be key terrain. Units focus on control of the essential so they can concentrate combat power where it is needed and conserve it. This implies risk in those areas where units choose not to exercise control in order to be able to mass overwhelming power where it is needed.

Figure 1-5. Military airbase, an example of key terrain.

 
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How to Make an Detonator [Jun. 11th, 2008|02:29 pm]
The Militant Corner

redstar08
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To understand what is a detonator you have to understand that there are two explosives. Low explosive that expands slowly like gun powder can be ignited by a flame or fuse. High Explosives include fast expanding charges like C4, TNT and Plastic Explosives. High explosives have to be set off by a detonator or a blasting cap. In such a case the detonator is considered as the Primary explosive and the High Explosive as the Secondary explosive.

Detonators can be electrical, mechanical, chemical or fused. This article will delve into electrical and fused detonators.

Detonators work by releasing an immense amount of heat, pressure and friction at high velocities in a confined place. All these characteristics are obligatory for an effective detonator. There are very few chemicals that exhibit all of the above when ignited by a direct flame one of which is mercury fulminate. A few detonators are a complete system in one, i.e they are composed of primary and secondary charges so as to gain more effective detonation properties, however detonators are not always better because they are more powerful.

Where should a detonator be placed in a charge ? To direct the explosion into one smaller area the explosive would have to be confined in a cone of hard material. The detonator is placed in the peak of the cone and the open peak covered with clay. The direction of the explosion will be towards the larger open end of the cone.

There are three main types of detonators available. J1, #8 and a compound detonator.

#8 blasting cap
Materials required are a 10 inch waterproof fuse, a spent 223 cartridge, smokeless gunpowder from a pistol cartridge, mercury fulminate powder, sulphur, Potassium Chlorate powder. The last two are optional.

Combine 1 part Pottassium Chlorate with 1/8 part sulphur. This is mix 1. Mix one part mercury fulminate with 1/2 part mix1. This is the final mix. Fill the 223 shell half full of smokeless gunpowder. Fill the rest of it with the final mix. Put the fuse in the shell and close it off with water resistant glue. This is a #8 detonator which can be ignited by flame.

J1 Detonator
Materials required are a 12 inch waterproof fuse, a spent 223 cartridge, smokeless gunpowder from a pistol cartridge, mercury fulminate powder, sulphur, Potassium Chlorate powder.

Combine 1 part Pottassium Chlorate with 1/8 part sulphur. This is mix 1. Mix 2 part mercury fulminate with 1/2 part mix1. This is the final mix. Fill the 223 shell to the rim with final mix and the rest of the shell should be filled with smokeless powder. Place the fuse in the 223 shell, pinch and glue.

Compound detonators
Compound detonars are very useful in a situation with negative enviromental factors such as dust, rain, heat and cold. These detonars are a sure way of being sure the charge goes off.

Materials required are 15 inch fuse, Mercury Fulminate, smokeless powder, Pottassium Chlorate and a spent 30 06 shell.

Mix 1 part mercury fulminate with 1/8 part Potassium chlorate, this is mix 1. Mix 1 part mix1 with 1/8 part smokeless powder. This is the final mix. Put the final mix in the shell. Insert the fuse, pinch and seal.

Electric detonator
To convert any of the above detonators into an electric detonator an electric ignitor as used for rocket engines is used. This can be found at hobby stores. The ignitor can be inserted instead of a fuse and sealed but not pinched in the shell.

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High Explosives [Jun. 11th, 2008|01:49 pm]
The Militant Corner

redstar08
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 Explosives can be classified into two different grades, they are High and Low. Low can include such as Black Powder and other non detonated compounds. High includes such things as C4 and Ammonium Nitrate Etc. It is known that liquid explosives have several major advantages over Solids. The fact that liquid explosives have a uniform density means that they are much more powerful per area than non uniform solid explosives.

Nitromethane is one of the safest and cheapest liquid explosives available on the market. It can be obtained from Chemical supply houses, drag strips and hobby stores as model airplane fuel and many other places. Nitromethane obtained is usually combined with methanol which means it is not explosive. If boiled for 20-30 seconds the methanol is evaporated leaving only nitromethane which is shock sensitive from 20 feet. By adding ammonia to it you get an extremely powerful explosive, using 6% ammonia by weight. This is more than 20 times more powerful than TNT. It is usually used by confining and detonating.

Ammonium Nitrate is another good substance which can be used to sensitize nitromethane. This is done by placing Ammonium nitrate in a pan and cooking until it turns into a brown liquid, then cooling in a plate of aluminium and crushing the cool substance into a fine powder. Adding 2 cups of this to a half cup of nitromethane would result in a substance that when placed in a pipe and detonated could take off the side of a house.

Astrolite
(Ammonium nitrate and anhydrous hydrazine)
If fertillizer grade ammonium nitrate is to be used it has to be first purified. This is done by boiling Methanol Alchohol and adding the fertillizer Ammonium nitrate until no more of it will dissolve. This is then cooled in an ice bath and the white crystalls deposited at the bottom are pure Ammonium Nitrate. Thus the pure Ammonium nitrate can be heated on a lowest temperature on a pan in the oven until very dry. 1 Kilo of this is added to a half kilo of anhydrous hydrazine.

AIG
To further convert this into AIG add a quarter kilo of of 200 mesh aluminium with the ammonium nitrate before before adding the nitromethane created earlier. This produces an extremely powerful explosive. It can be detonated with a J1 or #8 detonator.

Anhydrous hydrazine can be obtained out of a chemical supply house, it is also known as rocket fuel. It is difficult to obtain but a few science mail order companies do provide it.

Nitromethan is extracted from Hobby Airplane fuel which can be found in hobby stores. The fuel is usually composed of 20% Nitromethane and the remaining is methanol.

There are many techniques for creating detonators.

Other High Explosives
A high explosive can be composed out of bullseye gunpowder. Nitromethane is added to a quarter kilo of bullseye until it is the consistency of thick gel. Then one eighth of a kilo of pure ammonium nitrate is added to it and kneaded. This is placed in a plastic bag and detonated in a metal pipe with #8 detonator. This has twice the power of C4.

This article is for information purposes only. All explosives are very difficult to create and safety should always be an issue. Do not use an open flame for heating, do not breath any gases released, do not combine hot chemicals together, do not use cigarettes.

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